Day 1 :
- Traditional Medicine | Dietary supplements | Nutraceuticals for Cardiovascular Health | Others
Curtin University, Australia
Ali Alyami is a Clinical Dietitian, obtained his bachelor’s degree from King Saud University 2004 and Master’s degree from Canberra University in 2011. He is currently pursuing his PhD at Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
There is increasing interest in the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on chronic diseases including CVD. The objective of this study was to determine whether circulating lipids, systemic inflammation and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation varied across vitamin D status of older Australians. One hundred and one participants were proportionately sampled across tertile (T1=lowest, T2=middle, T3=highest) of 25(OH)D3 from a larger cohort of free living older adults. Blood samples after an overnight fast were assayed for PTH, insulin, TAG, total cholesterol and lipid fractions. Markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation included hsCRP, TNF- α, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), P-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) amongst others. Eighty three participants (48 women, 35 men) aged 65±7.7 years; BMI 28±4.5 kg/m2 with complete data entered the analysis. A general linear model multivariate analysis with a backward elimination stepwise procedure was performed (SPSS version 22). The final model built based on a parsimonious model, which included age, gender, BMI, McAuley’s index as confounders but excluded season, medications and PTH, indicated that there were significant differences across vitamin D tertile in TC (T1>T3, p=0.003), LDL-C (T1>T3, p=0.005), HGF (T1).
Northumbria University, UK
Emma Wightman is currently a Senior Lecturer of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Northumbria University in the United Kingdom. Her research conducted within the Brain Performance and Nutrition Research Centre involves investigating the effects of nutritional interventions, in particular polyphenols, on human brain function, including cognitive function, metabolic parameters and cerebral blood-flow.
Resveratrol is a stilbene polyphenol found predominantly in grapes. It has been associated with a plethora of health effects with much of this literature supporting its benefit to cardio protection. This latter role is likely underpinned by the ability of resveratrol to modulate blood flow, making it of great interest as a potential modulator of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and therefore, neural/cognitive function. However, the natural metabolism of resveratrol results in quick excretion and poor bioavailability in human plasma. After finding robust cerebral blood flow effects but no cognitive enhancement in a cohort of healthy 18-35 years old after 250 and 500 mg, this lab has conducted 2 studies which attempt to alter natural resveratrol metabolism, to increase bioavailability and to assess the effects of this on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and behavioral outcomes. Study 1 cosupplemented 250 mg resveratrol with 20 mg of the bioenhancer piperine and demonstrated increased efficacy on CBF but no significant alteration in plasma levels or cognition/mood. Study 2 investigated whether repeated dosing of resveratrol (500 mg daily, for 28-days) could inculcate increased plasma levels and improve CBF, health, mood, sleep and cognition/mood. Here resveratrol demonstrated acute CBF affects attenuated fatigue across the entire 28-days and suggests that cumulative plasma resveratrol levels can be achieved by chronic consumption. However, cognitive effects were still elusive in these cohorts at their cognitive peak. The most recent study we have conducted uses hypoxia as a model of aging to ascertain whether the resulting cognitive deficits can be attenuated by resveratrol and this data will be presented here.
Christian Medical College & Hospital, India
Mini Joseph is currently an Assistant Professor in Food & Nutrition at Government College for Women, Trivandrum, Kerala. She is presently pursuing Post-doctoral Fellowship at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism at Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. She is a recipient of Young Scientist Award from the Nutrition Society of India in 2012. Her interests are in community nutrition, energy expenditure research, sports nutrition and diabetes.
Type-1 DM accounts for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the commonest metabolic disorders of childhood. India has the largest number of type-1 diabetes mellitus patients. The study was conducted amongst young adults’ type-1 diabetes mellitus patients (18-45 years of age). The main objectives of this study were to look at the demographic, clinical, nutritional characteristics and to study the effect of these factors on their glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Data was obtained from updated medical records and clinical examination by physician. Dietary intake was assessed using food dairies and 24 hour recall method. Anthropometry was determined using standard procedures.The analysis revealed that the socio-economic variables did not affect the glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin value was 8.81±2.38%. Nearly half of the patients were malnourished. The overall quality of the diet intake was inadequate. The multivariate regression model, adjusted for confounding factors like gender, age and BMI, revealed that only duration of the diabetes and protein intake were significant predictors of HbA1C status (p<0.005). Type-1 diabetes patients are a vulnerable segment of the diabetes population and Indian society needs to be sensitized to their needs.
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Yat Kwan has her expertise in search of novel alternatives via combining traditional Chinese medicine theories with modern technologies to develop self-administrable techniques or devices to improve patients’ mental health and wellbeing.
Background: In view of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the latest medical literature, acupoints Baihui (DU11) and Yintang (DU13) located on the forehead are suggested as a primary stimulation site for electroacupuncture in treating depression together with ear acupuncture therapy. Divergent from traditional acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical stimulation does not require piercing of needles. Instead, electrodes are placed on the skin at certain sites. Thereby avoiding trauma pain and needle-phobia, it is more accepted by patients and clinical operations. To this end, we intend to further create a novel and self-administrable noninvasive brain stimulation therapy, namely transcutaneous electrical cranial-auricular acupoint stimulation (TECAS). Objectives: This study compares the clinical efficacy and safety of TECAS with the antidepressant Escitalopram in treating mild to moderate depression through a randomized controlled trial.
Methods: 70 patients were randomized into TECAS group (n=35) and antidepressant group (n=35). Both groups received 8-weeks of treatment with a 4-weeks post-treatment follow up. Patients in TECAS group received 30 minutes of stimulation treatment twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening every day, while those in antidepressant group received 10-20mg q.d. of escitalopram each day.
Results: Over 60% of the participants in TECAS responded (50% score reduction from baseline) to the treatment and achieved remission (MADRS score of 10 or below) from depression. No significant differences were observed between the groups (p>0.05) in all the assessment results. No serious adverse events were observed throughout the study.
Faculty of Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Maria Evseeva is a PhD student in the Moscow State University. The focus of her research is the transcriptional regulation in adipogenesis and obesity. Specific interests include metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes.
Statement of the Problem: Obesity is a major health problem and is associated with a high risk of metabolic diseases, for instance type 2 diabetes. Since pathological adipogenesis causes obesity-related complications, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms, involved in physiological and pathological adipogenesis can help to develop new strategies to prevent or cure obesity and related diseases. Previously, we have shown that transcription factor Hhex (PRH) knockdown blocks adipogenesis in 3T3L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner and leads to a significant decrease of PPAR-gamma protein - the main regulator of adipogenesis - while the PPARG mRNA level remains unaffected. We have also shown that these effects are proteasome independent. Here we study the role of Hhex in human MSCs adipogenesis and show that in human MSCs Hhex knockdown causes similar effects: suppresses adipogenesis dose-dependently and downregulates PPAR gamma protein. The obtained results support the idea that Hhex is important regulator of adipogenesis and may be a perspective target for future drug discovery.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: human MSCs were obtained from healthy donors and cultured in DMEM medium, supplied with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics at 37C and 5% CO2. The siRNA to Hhex and control siRNA were transduced to cells via lentiviral particles. GFP-positive cells were selected by cell-sorting and induced to the adipogenic differentiation. After 21 days cells were harvested and the efficacy of adipogenic differentiation was analyzed with Oil Red O staining, PCR-RT and western-blotting analysis.
Findings: Here we show that in human MSCs Hhex knockdown suppresses adipogenesis dose-dependently and downregulates PPAR gamma protein with no effect on mRNA level. These results reproduce the effects which we have reported previously in 3T3L1 preadipocytes.