Day 1 :
- Pharmaceuticals vs Nutraceuticals | Nutraceuticals as Alternative For Pharmaceuticals | Functional Foods |Dietary Supplements | Prebiotics & Probiotics
Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Qatar
Dr. Ali Chaari, P.h.D in Biochemistry and Biophysics. He is currently a Lecturer in Biochemistry in Weill Cornell medicine-Qatar. Dr. Chaari is experienced in biochemistry, molecular biology, and biophysics. He has co-authored several original research articles, written two books and has presented his work at several conferences. In addition, he is active as a research mentor to WCM-Q's medical students. Two active research areas are 1) the study of amyloid proteins modulation in neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes and 2) the effect probiotics on health notably on neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes type 2.
The loss of b-cell function and b-cell death is key feature of type 2 diabetes (T2M). Different hypothesis is presented to contribute to this disease including amyloid formation by the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). Despite the prevalence of T2M on the world, there are no therapeutic strategies for the treatment or prevention of amylin amyloidosis. Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet especially the extra virgin olive oil enriched in phenolic compounds showed to be effective against several aging and lifestyle diseases including their action in relation of amyloid deposits related diseases. For this, oleuropein (Ole) one of the most abundant polyphenol in EVOOO, which has been reported to be also anti-diabetic, and some of its main derivatives, have attracted our interest due to their multitarget effects including the interference with amyloid aggregation path. However, the structure- function relationship of polyphenols Ole and its metabolites in T2DM are not yet clear.
We report here a broad biophysical approach and cell biology techniques that enabled us to characterize the different molecular mechanisms by which tyrosol (TYR), hydroxytyrol (HT), oleuropein (Ole) and oleuropein aglycone (OleA) modulate the hIAPP fibrillation in vitro and their effect on cell cytotoxicity. The latter formed by enolic acid and hydroxytyrosol moiety was found to be more active than the Ole and HT at low micromolar concentrations. We further demonstrated that OleA inhibits more the cytotoxicity induced by hIAPP aggerates by protecting more the cell membrane from permeabilization and then from death. These finding highlight the benefits to consume olive oils, the great potential of EVOO polyphenols, mainly OleA, and support for the possibility to validate and optimize their possible pharmacological use not only for T2DM prevention and therapy but also for amyloid related diseases.
University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Hafsa Kamran has completed her M Phil degree in Community Health and Nutrition and has been serving as Assistant professor at University institute of diet and Nutritional Sciences for last seven years. She has great interest in nutraceuticals and functional foods. She has nine publications in renowned journals.
Black pepper, also known as Piper nigrum is related to the family Piperaceae and is most commonly consumed spice worldwide. Among the several different kinds of spices Piper nigrum L. holds a dominant position due to its distinct pungency and flavor and is thus, recognized as “King of Spices”. The pungent aroma and flavor of black pepper is because of naturally occurring alkaloid piperine, volatile oils and oleoresins present in it. Piperine, pellitorine, guineensine, pipnoohine, trichostachine and piperonal are active components in black pepper. In human studies, piperine, the major active component of black pepper has been found to possess direct effect on various cancers, gastrointestinal motility, inflammation, oxidation, genotoxicity, asthma, diabetes, hyperlipidemias, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Piperine has also shown to increase bioavailability of certain drugs thus showing its indirect effect on cognitive performance, hepatic health, urticaria, allergy and ulcerative colitis. The focus of current review is to provide a brief overview of research regarding potential benefits of black pepper on human health.
Malaysian Cocoa Board, Cocoa Innovation & Technology Centre, Malaysia
Norliza Abdul Wahab has completed her PhD from Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) on 2019 in a field of Halal Product Development. She has also been serving Malaysian Cocoa Board (MCB) since 2002, specializing in cocoa-based cosmetic product development.
Flavonoids are one of the major components found in Theobroma cacao. Present evidence has suggested that major flavonoid content, inlcuding catechin and epicatechin isolated from cocoa bean extract (CBE), have many biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, reduction of oxidative stress, anti-aging etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of potential Malaysian cocoa bean extract, i.e. PBC140 on the inhibition of ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression, a major marker of skin photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). An assessment has been conducted on the MMP-1 level using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 5 J/cm2 UVA-induced HDF cell lines treated with CBE in a dose-dependent manner (2.5 x102 - 1.0x103 µg/mL). Reduction of MMP-1 expression of the CBE of PBC140 at 5x102 and 1x103 mg/mL, by 9.34- and 25-folds relative to the calibrator, respectively, have verified its significant photoprotective effect for skin anti-aging. Intervention of approximately 500 mg 0.1% (w/v) CBE formulation on 20 human subjects aged between 30 to 46 years for 2 months duration in the in vivo skin efficacy studies recorded significant (p<0.05) percent changes of skin texture parameters, namely volume (-40%), energy (46%), contrast (-18%) and variance (-21%). The skin elasticity parameter for CBE formulation recorded significant (p<0.05) increment of ten times compared to placebo group. To conclude, Malaysian CBE is a potential active material due to the encouraging results of MMP-1 downregulation and in vivo skin efficacy that meet the primary objective of producing harmless yet natural cosmeceutical with significant skin improvement.
UMB School of Medicine, USA
Dr. Kelly completed her PharmD from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA and completed a residency in psychiatric pharmacy practice at the University of Maryland (UMB), Baltimore in 1997. Dr. Kelly is currently Professor of Psychiatry at the UMB School of Medicine and directs the Treatment Research Program at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center in Baltimore, MD USA. She has published more than 200 peer-reviewed papers, books and book chapters related to schizophrenia and treatment. In 2017 she was awarded the Maltz Prize for Innovative and Promising Schizophrenia Work by the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation.
Background: Emerging research suggests that disruptions of the normal flora in the gut microbiota may affect brain development and function and play a role in psychiatric disorders. Butyrate is one of the three major short chain fatty acids (SCFA) that are produced by bacterial fermentation in the gut and plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the gut/blood barrier and in several aspects of brain development, including cognitive function. People with schizophrenia are characterized by marked cognitive impairments and currently no known treatments are available to improve cognitive performance. In this study, we examined the effects of oligosaccharide-enriched inulin treatment (OEI, Prebiotin®), a prebiotic that is taken up by the gut bacteria to produce butyrate, on psychiatric symptoms and cognitive changes.
Methods: In this 2-week open-label pilot study, we enrolled participants with a DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, between the ages of 18-64 years, and who were hospitalized for at least 7 days, were treated with an antipsychotic without dose changes in the last 14 days and had no antibiotic, prebiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments within the last 3 months. All participants received 2 weeks of OEI (4 grams three times daily) with standard inpatient meals. We measured butyrate levels at baseline and end of study both pre- and post-dose (2 hour) of OEI and food (i.e., pre- and post-prandial). Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Schedule for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). We also collected stool samples nearest baseline and endpoint. Descriptive statistics are included for other variables due to the small sample size and only changes >15% are noted. Changes in butyrate levels were evaluated using Cohen’s D effect size measurements for pre- to post-changes at baseline and endpoint
Results: We enrolled five participants: all of whom were taking olanzapine or clozapine and smoked cigarettes. Three of the five participants were female and four of five were African-American. The mean age of illness onset was 18.8 ± 7.0 years and mean age at the time of study was 38.1 ± 8.5 years. We observed a 28% increase in the MCCB composite score over the 2 weeks of the study; in particular, there was a 28% increase in visual learning, a 31% increase in processing speed and a 16% increase in attention performance. On the BPRS, we observed a 15% decrease in psychosis and a 23% decrease in hostility symptoms. We observed little to no change in SANS total score or on other BPRS symptom dimensions. Only 3 participants had baseline and endpoint pre- and post-prandial butyrate levels and stool samples. In the absence of OEI treatment, there was essentially no change in serum butyrate levels pre- to post-prandial (change in serum butyrate = -0.95 μg/ml (0.87% decrease). In contrast, after two weeks of OEI treatment, the pre- to post-prandial change in serum butyrate levels was 25.3 μg/ml, a 24.0% increase (Effect size= 1.32). Microbiome data shows that OEI treatment caused a change in the microbiome diversity, associated with increased relative abundances of known butyrate producing bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria, Roseburia and Coproccus. Side effects were negligible.
Conclusion:Based on our preliminary results, OEI treatment in people with schizophrenia has a promising therapeutic potential. Future studies should replicate these initial findings and OEI may be an effective treatment for cognitive dysfunction. We are currently conducting an NCCIH funded R61/33 clinical trial to examine the effects of OEI on butyrate in a double blind randomized clinical trial.
Funding Source: This study was funded by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland (UMB) School of Medicine, UMB School of Pharmacy and Institute for Genome Sciences. Prebiotin® was provided by Jackson GI Medical.